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[1] Estimates from ONDCP, HITDA, Don Hoang (Forest Service Special Agent in Charge of the Pacific SW Region), Dr. Mourad Gabriel (Co-Director at the Integral Ecology Research Center), Tommy Lannier (Director of the National Marijuana Initiative)


[2] Ferrell, David L. 2016. Issue: Marijuana Cultivation on National Forest System and other public lands, environmental effects, and cooperative activities. US Forest Service Report to Congress. Washington, D.C., USA.


[3] Law enforcement statistics based on eradications

[4] Hoang, Don. 2019. Illegal Marijuana Production and Environmental Impact to National Forest System Lands. US Forest Service Publication 5300, Washington, D.C., USA.


[5] Integral Ecology Research Center trespass grow test results and first-hand reclamations


[6] Gabriel, M. W., L. V. Diller, J. P. Dumbacher, G. M. Wengert, J. M. Higley, R. H. Poppenga, and S. Mendia. 2018. Exposure to rodenticides in Northern Spotted and Barred Owls on remote forest lands in northwestern California: evidence of food web contamination. Avian Conservation and Ecology 13(1):2.

[7] M.W. Gabriel, L.W. Woods, R. Poppenga, R.A. Sweitzer, C. Thompson, S.M. Matthews, J.M. Higley, S.M. Keller, K. Purcell, R.H. Barrett, G.M. Wengert, B.N. Sacks, D.L. Clifford, (2012). Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: Spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore. PLoS ONE. 2012 Jul 13; 7(7):e40163.               

[8] California Department of Pesticide Regulation. 2018. An Investigation of anticoagulant rodenticide data submitted to the Department of Pesticide Regulation. California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, CA, USA.


[9] Bauer, S., J. Olson, A. Cockrill, M. van Hattem, L. Miller, M. Tauzer, G. Leppig. 2015. Impacts of Surface Water Diversions for Marijuana Cultivation on Aquatic Habitat in Four Northwestern California Watersheds. PLOS ONE 10(9): e0137935.


[10] Hendron, J. 2017. Illegal Marijuana Sites: A stain on Public Lands. US Fish & Wildlife Service newsroom. <>. Accessed 24 May 2019.


[11] California Council of Land Trusts. 2017. Environmental Impacts of Illegal Marijuana Cultivation. Conservation Frontiers (6.1):1-4.


[12] Basic calculation based on law enforcement estimates of number of plants removed, and water requirements per plant per growing season


[13] Estimates from IERC trespass grow GIS modelling and analysis